The most popular signal peptide for cosmetic use is palmitoyl pentapeptide (Matrixyl). Palmitoyl pentapeptide-4 (Matrixyl) is a skin rejuvenation compound. The palmitoyl pentapeptide consists of five amino acids linked together and attached to a fatty acid to enhance oil solubility for the sake of better skin penetration. It stimulates the synthesis of the key constituents of the skin matrix: collagen, elastin and glucosamnoglycans because it is structurally related to the precursor of collagen type I.
2. Copper peptides: Argireline
Because peptides are small, they can penetrate the skins protective barriers to get to the deeper layers. When copper is attached to a peptide, the peptide can deliver copper to the living layers of the skin. Copper is essential for enzymes including lysyl oxidase (crosslinking of elastin and collagen) and dopamine beta hydroxylase (catecholamine formation). Copper Peptide products show positive effects on collagen deposition, tensile strength, angiogenesis, hair follicle cycle regulation, and SOD activity so that to diminish the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Copper peptides can be found in Neova, Osmotics as well as products like Neutrogenas Visibly Firm Night Cream.
Some Neuropeptides might block transmission of signals from nerves to your facial muscles. Argireline is the trade name for Acetyl Hexapeptide-3, a synthetic anti-aging cosmetic ingredient derived from natural proteins. Argirelines purpose is to decrease the visible effects of aging by reducing the deep wrinkles and lines that occur around the forehead and eyes. Cosmetics companies have marketed Argireline as a cheaper alternative treatment to Botulinum Toxin A (Botox), because the principles behind their chemical actions are similar.
3. Other cosmetic peptides: Matrikine
Other peptides like matrikine peptide (glycyl-histidyl-lysine) are small peptide fragments of extracellular matrix proteins that display potent tissue repair activities. It is possible to use matrikine peptide incorporated collagen film as a therapeutic agent in the wound healing process. Some cosmetic preparation contains peptide derivatives from -MSH. These cosmetic products have the property of activating the melanogenesis and being an anti-inflammatory and acting more efficiently.
4. Peptide might not do anything
Unfortunately, the clinical data is still too skimpy to view many peptides such as palmitoyl pentapeptide-4 as a proven anti-wrinkle treatment at this time. Peptides are break-down products of proteins. They might continue to break down further in a topical cream, becoming useless. A difficulty in achieving sustained delivery of bioactive concentration of some cosmetic peptides in the affected area limits their therapeutic use.